Posts Tagged ‘survival skills’

I picked up a copy of Les Stroud’s book Survive, and found it to be a very good read, so good in fact I’ve placed it into my keeper library of prepper and survival literature. There are a couple of reasons for it, one of which is that Les doesn’t dwell on the fast paced hype that many ‘survival gurus’ want to push.

This book is divided into 15 chapters, plus author notes and some good checklists in the back. Les starts out with chapter one being on trip planning and preparation. Funny, but a lot of so called experts usually gloss over the basics of trip planning, if they even address it at all. Of course, this just falls into the ADD method for your preparedness and survival planning, so it makes sense to start from the beginning. ADD: Analyze, Develop and Deploy. Works every time provided you follow the concept in full.

Seriously though, trip planning requires more effort than packing a bag and grabbing a map and compass. You have to develop your mindset, accept what you are and make sure others know where you’re going, and when you’ll be back. Preparation is one of the key elements to having a successful plan no matter what you are planning for a project.

The chapters themselves are set to examine separate needs and skills that you should be learning, if you already haven’t done so, to survive any incident that leaves you in a position that most of us would rather not be caught up in. Survival skills are best demonstrated as being the result of proper planning, and each of these chapters need to be gone through as first; separate subjects, and secondly; as an intertwined, comprehensive philosophy. Everything you need to possess by way of knowledge can only be acquired by learning and practicing what you have learned.

I won’t go into a detailed description of each chapter here. I tried, but the piece simply grew into a book of its own discussing each of these points and ideas presented by Les Stroud in this book. Suffice it to say, I paid $19.99 for the book, but you can get it cheaper by shopping around, but no matter what you eventually pay, it’s worth the cost for this extra voice in your planning regimen.

The chapters in this book are;

1;    Trip Planning and Preparation

2;    Survival Kits

3;    Psychological Aspects of Survival

4;    Signaling

5;    Water

6;    Fire

7;    Shelter

8;    Food

9;    Survival Travel and Navigation

10;    Dangers and Hazards

11;    Weather

12;    Clothing

13;    Survival First Aid

14;    Essential Survival Skills

15;    When Disaster Strikes Close to Home

One of the things I like about this volume is the way Stroud looks at an issue from varied viewpoints, such as in chapter 9, where he addresses the issue of traveling in a survival situation. Most writers have one opinion or another, they stick to it, and they fail to examine both sides of that same issue. This chapter looks at the question of “should you stay or go” and looks at the pros and cons of both aspects.

From tips on navigation, fire starting, sheltering and more, I think you’ll find the entire book a worthy read if you are really serious about learning to survive when the crap hits the fan. If you’re into the hype part of surviving the coming times, you won’t be satisfied with it. Les Stroud doesn’t discuss end time scenarios, but real world survival skills.

Les Stroud: Survive

Published by Collins

ISBN: 978-0-06-137351-0

List price $19.99


Build a Water Filter Plant for Your Camp

By F.E. Brimmer

Sometimes one will discover that the water supply near camp is not fit to drink and some method must be improvised for filtering it before drinking. One season a party that the writer happened to be in was camping in a river valley where it seemed about impossible to get spring water because the season was so dry that all the brooks and streams had dried up, so we had to use river water. But just a little above us was a tannery and above that the dye works, hence the water problem was a bad one. We solved it easily and safely with a home-made filter plant that did good service for several weeks, protecting our health and giving us pure drinking water. Often a certain kind of water will disagree with some members of the camping party, and this seems especially the case in hot weather, hence the safe way will be to have a filtering plant near camp where all may drink pure water of the best who desire it. Filtered water is much better than boiled water because boiling does not take out the disagreeable part but only kills the germs, where the improvised filter device will take away all foreign substances and produce transparent water that is perfectly pure.

The essential parts of this filtering plant are two barrels and a frame for holding them. The small barrel, or cask, should be one of only fifteen or twenty gallons, marked K on the drawing. This does its work inside a larger barrel, H, which is the common size water-tight cask. To make the large barrel ready for its duty in the filtering device a platform, R, should be placed across its center as shown. This platform, R, is made from an oak board — be sure to use oak for this will not taint the water like other wood might — that is twelve inches wide and the proper length to fit nicely inside the large part of the barrel, H. To make the board, R, fit to place well it will be necessary to round its ends to the curve of the barrel with the compass saw. Two cleats of oak, E-E, are nailed to the opposite sides of the barrel for the purpose of supporting the platform. These cleats should be well nailed, or better held with long screws, because the combined weight of the smaller cask and its contents will be very heavy. Near one end of the board, R, an inch hole, N, maybe bored just where the faucet, F, from the small cask is located so that the water that filters slowly out through the faucet drops directly to the bottom of the larger cask.

The large cask, H, should be equipped with a pinch faucet, T, somewhere near its base and in any convenient location for use. From this faucet the filtered water may be drawn as needed. The filtered water will be held ready for use at W, in the bottom of the larger barrel. Next the platform, Y, had better be made for supporting the filter plant. This may be made from odds and ends of lumber that you may pick up almost anywhere. Four posts, like those at X-X, will hold the platform, Y, upon which the barrels may be held. The height of the platform off the ground need be only eighteen inches. Form the corner posts by driving into the ground. Make sure that platform is fairly level. It will only need to be large enough to accommodate the base of the larger barrel, say two feet square, or a little more, according to the capacity of the cask you use.

The smaller barrel, K, should now be ready for its part of the work. In its base place two inches of coarse clean gravel. The kind that you can get from the bed of a swiftly flowing stream will be just right. Above this comes a two-inch layer of ordinary gravel. Then place two inches of coarse sand, and last ten inches of clean, fine sand. On the sketch the coarse gravel is at E, the ordinary gravel at D, the coarse sand, C, and the fine sand, B. The space A, at the top of the small cask is for the water that is to be filtered. When the water is first poured into the small cask it is best to keep the faucet, F, closed for an hour until the contents get thoroughly soaked up, then it may be opened and the water will filter out. The layers of gravel and sand should be packed well down with the hands when placed in the smaller barrel. If the water goes through the filtering plant too rapidly it is a sure sign that it is not being cleansed properly and that your gravel and sand have too many room spaces between them, most likely from not being packed well into place. If the first water runs through roily and dirty it is because the water is washing out dust and stain that is on the lower layer of gravel. As soon as the filtering plant has been used a day or two it will clean up and get under way perfectly.

Some kind of cover should be placed over the top of the larger barrel so that no dirt can fall into the filtered water. Fill the smaller cask with pails of water from time to time, say every morning. If pure ice is available you may carefully place pieces of it in the filtered water half an hour before ready to use and so draw ice-cold filtered water from your plant. Just what a blessing this is can only be realized by one who has been in a camping section where there is poor water. The knowledge of how to make this filtering plant may come very convenient for you to know about. Of course the same system may be used in filtering water in small quantities for the home.

The contents of the smaller cask should be changed from time to time. This will depend on the amount of water that you pass through the filtering gravel and sand as well as the amount of impurity taken from the water. The fine sand should be changed once a week and the other layers monthly. Experience will tell you when it is time to renew the contents of gravel and sand because the water will begin to come through imperfectly filtered and can be readily detected by the taste.

(Note: This same filter can be made today even if you haven’t any oak barrels. Simply substitute a 35 gallon drum for the larger barrel H, and a five gallon pail for the inner filtering container K.)

Here’s another way to filter water when at camp or in a survival situation:

How to Make a Water Filter for the Camp

Both in the home and in the camp it is often desired to filter the water that is to be used for cooking and drinking purposes. If filtering the water in the camp were always followed there would be less sickness after camping trips. Many a camper, coming home from a two or three weeks’ outing, is taken ill. and the doctor will tell him it was incurred by drinking water that was not pure.

Many methods are used to filter water that is used in the camp. Some of these are good, others are doubtful as to the purity of water obtained from them. Filtering water through a barrel sunk in the sand at the lake shore so that the water can come through the cracks along the staves is one way of obtaining pure water. Boiling and straining water is also a means to the same end. but a system that is far better than either of these is to make a filter as follows: Obtain a large earthen flower pot, unglazed, and with a hole in the bottom. Place a piece of clean flannel over the hole and fill in about 3 inches of clean sand, and cover the sand over with 4 inches of charcoal.

The water to be filtered is poured in at the top and the receptacle to catch the water is set below. The filtered water will come through the hole in the bottom of the pot. At intervals the pot should be cleaned out and new sand put in it. The charcoal should be put in a shovel or tin over a fire and thoroughly dried out, then it can be used again. This is an inexpensive and absolutely efficient method of purifying water.

I happened to be listening to Neil Diamond’s Hot August Night album, just for background music while trying to figure out what to write, and along came his tune Porcupine Pie. (Listen to one version here.) It’s a great little tune, especially for the kiddies, but I wonder how many people have given thought to life after the collapse and what kinds of nourishment you can round up near you. A lot of fun has been made over things like the road kill diner, and you know you’re a redneck when you drive by a road kill saying that’s a waste of good meat, but there really are a lot of things you can eat that wouldn’t ordinarily be part of your daily menu choices.

Porcupine is actually a rather sweet meat, and they really aren’t that much more difficult to prepare than any other animal you would have to skin. The big scare and bother for most people is of course the quills that adorn the porcupine’s furry little body. An old Indian trick I’ve heard of is to sear the quills over the fire to burn them off, then skin as you would other fur bearing critters. A good thing about these animals is that they are very slow in getting about. If you were really desperate for some fresh meat you could easily run one down and kill it with a stick if you were in fair to middling health. Dave Canterbury done kilt one on the first episode of Dual Survival. (See it here.)

Another animal that most people can eat, but never think of is the little black and white kitty cat of the woods, the skunk. I know, eeeyuuuu that stinks. Maybe so, but it used to be a mainstay filler meat for many of our aboriginal tribes here in the United States. And naturally the problem with this particular animal is the problem of its musk glands and the tainting of the meat it can cause. Here’s a recipe from Frank Bates’ Camping and Camp Cooking book;

Skunk Stew: —… Properly prepared, it is really a delicacy. When you catch a skunk, of course you kill him, if you can, before he explodes. If the odor is strong, hang the carcass over a smudge of hemlock twigs, being careful not to scorch the fur. Skin and dress, being careful not to break the musk glands, which must be carefully removed. Put in cold water over a slow fire, and boil for an hour, or as long as any fat will rise to the top. Skim off this fat and carefully preserve it in a bottle, against the time when the baby has the croup, or you yourself have a sprained muscle; it is very penetrating. Throw away the water, and boil the meat with a sliced onion in fresh water, till the meat will slip off the bones. Add sliced potatoes and season with salt, pepper, and a very little sage or poultry dressing. Many a man has become a confirmed mephitiphagist after partaking of the above without knowing what he was eating until he had finished his meal.

I’m not really sure how you would kill a skunk quick enough except for a deadfall trap. I would think shooting would be pretty risky as the scent glands would be the concern. Maybe someone can share a tip here.

Basically, any animal can be eaten, but I would stay away from the scavenger and strict carnivores found in and around the cities at first, such as cats. There’s no telling what kinds of toxic garbage they may have eaten. After a while things would improve and even these animals would be safer as a food source.

Otters are also said to be pretty good eating if prepared properly. Then there is the ever present ground hog, and on and on. I would say that these smaller animals would be able to be processed and then cooked in the same way as a rabbit would be used in a recipe. I’ve had some, and while I wouldn’t say I love them as everyday food, they are food, and someday this knowledge may fill your hungry belly. You can even grind them up and mix different meats into a hamburger blend too.

The point here is that when it comes to survival and preparedness planning, don’t count on normal being normal anymore. Learn to adapt and use your environment to your best advantage, including the food sources presented to you in that environment. Learn how to catch and prepare animals and fish that can be found where you live, or where your bug out location may be. Learn about the wild plants you can utilize as food sources to enhance your diet in a healthy manner.

It’s a tragedy to hear about hunters and fishermen that get lost in the woods and die of starvation. Living in the wilderness is like living in a grocery store. Unfortunately, we forget about the world around us and learn to pen ourselves into a life of supermarkets and takeout food. It’s a nasty habit, and we need to eliminate that habit if we are going to be survivors in the coming times.

This post is a section from Home Waterworks, by Carleton J. Lynde, ©1912. In keeping with the simple is better historic theme of creating a survival homestead, the hydraulic ram pumps are probably the best bet anywhere, unless you have a gravity fed spring water supply line. Low maintenance equipment with a high reliability factor is what you want to see on your homestead for years of productivity. Totally non electric, the ram pump is not susceptible to the fear of electromagnetic disruption, and requires no fuel besides water, so you are not held to the whims and availability of the energy market. It’s truly a deal that cannot be beaten by anyone.

Warning- just because you find a homestead away from town, it doesn’t automatically give you clean potable water. Have your water tested, or buy a kit and test it your self for safety’s sake. Ram pumps will move your water, but they won’t make it safe to drink. We’ll get into filtration and safe water in another installment.


Every foot-pound of work obtained from running water and from wind is clear gain. When coal, wood or oil is burned to drive an engine the work is done, but the fuel is gone forever. The work done is a gain, but against this must be placed so much fuel which cannot be used again. The work done by running water and by wind, however, is all gain, since the work done is a gain and the energy used would otherwise be wasted.

The hydraulic ram (Fig. 73) is one method of utilizing the energy of running water to pump water from a spring or brook into an elevated tank or into a pneumatic tank. It can be used where the running water has a fall of at least eighteen inches, although a fall of from three to ten feet gives better service. It will lift water from six to thirty feet for every foot of fall, according to the size and style of the ram; for example, if the fall from the brook to the ram is three feet, the ram will lift water from eighteen to ninety feet according to the size and style of ram.

How the ram works.

The operation of the ram (Fig. 74) is as follows. The water from the brook or spring flows down the drive pipe G and out at the working valve F, as shown in Fig. 74. The rate of flow of the water rapidly increases and when it reaches a certain velocity the valve F is suddenly closed by the force of the water. The momentum of the water in the drive pipe forces up the valve E and drives part of the water into the air chamber. The air in the chamber is compressed and thus exerts a back pressure on the water, which brings it to rest and starts it moving back up the drive pipe. This reaction or backward movement of the water closes the valve E and allows the valve F to open of its own weight. The water starts flowing down the drive pipe again, the valve F closes, and more water is forced into the air chamber, etc. This operation is repeated from twenty to two hundred times a minute according to the ratio of the fall to the height the water is pumped. The compressed air in the chamber forces water through the discharge pipe to the elevated tank, and from there the water flows to the house and stables by gravity.

At the base of the ram, just to the right of the flange of the drive pipe, is shown a small air valve C, called a sniffling valve. It serves to keep up the supply of air in the air chamber. Air is absorbed by water, and in time all the air in the chamber would be absorbed, and the chamber would become water-logged, if a fresh supply were not admitted. The sniffling valve admits this fresh supply of air as follows: on the reaction or backward movement of the water a partial vacuum is created in the base of the ram B, and as a result, the pressure of the atmosphere forces a little air in through the sniffling valve; on the next forward rush of water, this air is carried into the air chamber.

In general the ram uses the energy of running water to force part of it to a higher level. If there were no loss of energy from friction in the pipes and valves, the fraction of the water raised would be the ratio of the fall to the lift; for example, if the fall were three feet and the lift thirty feet, three-thirtieths or one-tenth of the water would be lifted. There is loss of energy in friction, however, and only about one fourteenth of the water is lifted when the ratio is one to ten; if the ratio is one to five, only one-seventh is lifted and similarly for other ratios, the amount lifted being always somewhat smaller than the theoretical amount.

In Fig. 75 is shown a sectional view of the Niagara hydraulic engine, a very efficient ram. The water enters through the drive pipe A and flows out through the working valve 13. At a certain velocity the force of the water closes the valve 13 and the momentum of the water in the drive pipe drives a part of the water into the air chamber G.

Fig. 75. Sectional view of Niagara hydraulic engine.

The compressed air in this chamber stops the rush of water and starts the reaction; this closes the valve E and allows the valve 13 to open again; also on the reaction a little air is forced in through the sniffling valve F by the pressure of the atmosphere. The compressed air in G keeps a steady flow of water moving through the discharge pipe C. The upper drawing gives a better view of the sniffling valve.

The rate of flow of water is regulated by the set nuts H at the top of the stem of the working valve. If more water is wanted, the nuts are unscrewed so that the valve has a longer motion and works more slowly. The water in the drive pipe then acquires a greater velocity before the valve closes, and therefore it has a greater momentum. As a result, more water is forced into the air chamber at each ramming motion; the air is compressed to a smaller volume, and therefore exerts a greater force and drives more water up through the delivery pipe.

If less water is wanted, the nuts are screwed down so that the valve works more rapidly on a shorter motion. The valve closes when the velocity of the water in the drive pipe is small; therefore the momentum of the water is small and less water is forced into the air chamber. The air in the chamber is not compressed so much and therefore a smaller quantity of water is forced through the discharge pipe in the same time.

The double acting ram.

Rams are made to force water from a spring into an elevated tank by means of the power of a neighboring river or brook, the water of which may not be fit to drink.

Fig. 76. Double-acting ram.

Fig. 76 is a sectional cut of the Niagara double-acting hydraulic engine. It is the same as the single-acting ram except that a supply pipe S from the spring is arranged to deliver water just below the valve E. The action of the ram is also the same as that of the single-acting ram, except that on the reaction the water enters the ram from the spring andfills the base T. On the next ramming motion of the water from the brook, the spring water is forced into the air chamber and out through the delivery pipe C. The ram is so adjusted that there is an excess of spring water and some of it flows out through the working valve D. This is brought about by the stand pipe on the pipe from the spring. It is made high enough to give a rapid flow of- spring water on the reaction. This excess of spring water prevents the river water from entering the air chamber and delivery pipe. The check valve on the springwater pipe prevents the spring water from being driven back up the pipe by the ramming motion of the water in the drive pipe.

Fig. 77. A standard ram.

The equipment.

The drive pipe is made as straight as possible, to allow the water a free flow. Where a bend must be made, as at the point it enters the ram, the whole pipe is bent in a long curve. The length of the drive pipe is important, and the manufacturers prefer to give information on this point for each installation. For the standard ram, however, the length is usually the same length as the lift. The end of the drive pipe in the spring or brook is protected by a strainer to keep out anything which might obstruct the valves. The area of waterway in the strainer should be two and one-half times the area of the pipe.

The ram is usually placed in a pit from which a large drain carries the excess water to a lower level. If the pipes are laid underground and the ram is covered in winter, there is no trouble from frost, particularly when the ram is allowed to run continuously. The delivery pipe is laid with as few bends as possible to avoid friction, but this is not as important in the delivery pipe as in the case of the drive pipe. The elevated tank should be provided with a well arranged overflow pipe, as the ram keeps it full to overflowing the greater part of the time.

A satisfactory engine.

Next to a natural gravity supply, the ram is the cheapest and most satisfactory means of obtaining running water. When once adjusted, it works away day and night, week in and week out, without attention, and after the first cost, which is not great, the only expense is for valves. These must be renewed every year or two according to the service.

In purchasing water-supply materials of any kind, it is well to remember that a cheap outfit is not necessarily an inexpensive one. It is better to pay a little more for a first-class outfit that will last a lifetime.

I came across this old article on starting an emergency campfire that I found pretty interesting, as I do most articles from the past when they relate skills that we need today for surviving in an emergency or disaster situation. The drawings are from another work, but I felt them relevant so inserted them for art’s sake, by the way. I think one of the ways we fall short in our planning is to forget about how things were done before the advances of technology made things easy for us modern day outers. Oh, an outer was a term used in the late 19th and early 20th century to describe a fellow that loved to spend as much time roughing it in the woods as he could. But at any rate, my recommendation to you as you develop your emergency preparedness plans as to learn as much as you can about pre-technology ways. That way, when technology fails, you will still be able to continue on.

Your Emergency Camp Fire

By L. E. Eubanks
Indicating Ways and Means of Doing the Things Our Ancestors Had to Do

THERE is not a great deal of art in building a fire, either a stove fire or an open fire, if conditions are right and, the proper fuel at hand. Most readers of this magazine have read all about fire building in the ordinary camp, under the usual conditions.

Old campers know, and prospective campers should be warned, that very much of the pleasure and profit from an outing depend on the camper’s maintenance of a comfortable temperature in the cabin or tent. The novice should guard particularly against being misled by the bodily warmth he feels when he first returns to camp from a vigorous tramp. He will cool quickly; even after a nice day the evening often grows unexpectedly cool, and a fellow, particularly if not used to roughing it, may take a cold that will spoil his fun—if it does nothing more serious.

An old woodsman with a big streak of humor has said that the best way to dry matches is not to let them get wet. The best drying treatment for “the last match” when it is damp is to rub it in your hair. The best way I know of to increase the chances of getting a fire from the last match is to cut some splinters the size of a toothpick from a piece of dry pine, if such is procurable, and bind them, say six or eight, around the match—their points within about an eighth of an inch from the fulminating end of the match. Even if a wind is blowing, at least one of the sticks is quite certain to hold flame.

I believe the most certain way to get a fire when it is raining is to find a rotten stump, gouge a hole into its heart, and start your kindling in the cavity. If you have a cartridge, cut it open carefully, dampen the powder slightly, and sprinkle it on the tinder.

But how about the tinder, you may ask; suppose even it is not to be found in a dry condition? A good many outers, hunters, trappers, etc., have learned to provide against such a contingency as that by carrying some kind of fire-starter in the camp outfit. A small roll of birch bark is fine: even if it gets wet the dampness does not penetrate beyond the outer layer, because of the oil in the bark.

But I know of something for “pocket kindling” even better than birch-bark—and a little more dependable, since the latter is not easily procurable in all sections. I refer to celluloid, a few little pieces of which will start a dandy fire in jig time. It is not only very inflammable but waterproof, and much more compact than bark. A few pieces of an old celluloid comb or of the white composition used to cover some harness rings can be carried in one’s pocket without the slightest inconvenience.

When the fire has to be built on snow—and of course it is impracticable to scrape away three or four feet of snow for a hasty, temporary camp—the novice at such work may fail even when he has at hand plenty of good starting material. Nine times out of ten he will place his dry wood directly on the snow, and by the time he finds out his mistake he may not have any dry stuff left.

He should make a bed of green logs on which to build the fire. Small logs will do, six or eight inches in diameter; and balsam is good because it is very sappy. The fire that is to be kept all night ought to be self-feeding; there are several arrangements of logs that permit the fuel to slip down into the fire as that below it burns out, and any thoughtful camper can soon devise a plan.

Remember too that a fire-back—a ledge of rock, bank of earth, or a big green log—will greatly increase the effectiveness of a fire that is built for warmth, by reflecting the heat. So pitch your tent, with reference to the fire-back’s position, so that when you build the fire you will get its full force.

But without a match! In that case, the outer, if he has a gun and ammunition, can even yet start a fire, if he goes at it right.

Sprinkle a little powder on the dry leaves, then put in but a small charge and do not pack it. Do not poke the muzzle into the leaves and twigs, but hold the barrel flat on them.

But if a fellow has neither match nor gun!! Pretty bad, if the weather is cold or he has to cook something; but he mustn’t give up. If there are two watches in the party, and if the sun is shining, you can make a burning-glass that will ignite dry leaves, by removing the crystals and placing them together, enclosing a little water between them. According to the historian Pliny, the ancients used a sphere of rock crystal as a burning glass for collecting the sun’s rays to a focus.

Starting a fire with a piece of ice is not at all impossible; in fact, it is easy if one has clear, pure ice, and knows how to shape it into a double convex lens—a lens that bulges on both sides. Sometimes the ice lens will act on fine, inflammable material even more quickly than a glass.

Take a piece of ice shaped like a silver dollar but a little bigger and a little thicker, and so hold it between your warm palms as to melt off the edges and bring it to the desired convex shape. Now catch the sun through it right, and see how quickly you can make a bit of tissue paper smoke. When the fire appears, a little later, gently blow it into a flame. Have additional fine fuel handy.

Among primitive peoples, there were two principal methods of starting fire—both used yet when emergency cannot be met otherwise. They were, by striking two suitable mineral substances together, or secondly, by rubbing two pieces of wood against each other. The principle was the same in both—ignition by friction. Fine, dry material like grass or punk was ready and the spark transferred to it.

It is said that in some parts of Alaska the natives rub sulphur on two pieces of quartz and strike these together to produce flame. Eskimos sometimes strike a piece of quartz against a lump of iron pyrite, with the same result.

Friction of two pieces of wood is still being used in some parts of the world. It is not likely that you and I will ever have to revert to these methods, but if the necessity should —well, it can’t do any harm to remember them.

Surviving the Times is now available, and until September 30th you can save 10% on your purchase by going to my book page and click “Buy” and enter the code word  ‘ FOUND ‘ at the checkout stage. Click on the title below to go to my bookstore and a secure ordering site.

Surviving The Times

Surviving The Times

Print: $24.95    Download: $12.00

Surviving the Times takes you through the steps to make your own preparedness planning binder. You’ll learn how to guage the level of various threats as the relate to your preparedness planning by using the three P’s of preparedness, the SaWaFo pyramid and more.